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CALL FOR PAPERS     SUBMISSION LAST DATE      28th December, 2021 FOR JANUARY ISSUE     

September,2021 Issue

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the presence of phytochemical constituents and their potential pharmacological activity of Amaranthus tricolor L. Methanol extract of the dry pulverized stem of Amaranthus tricolor obtained by cold extraction method. The stem extract was subjected to a preliminary phytochemical screening by standard methods. Phytochemical analysis revealed alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, phenols, tannins in the stem extract. The methanol extract showed intense thrombolytic activity with 66.3% clot lysis compared to 100μl Streptokinase (Standard), which showed 76% clot lysis. Methanol steam extract 250mg/kg showed 32.7% inhibition of feces and 55% inhibition of diarrhea, and 500mg/kg extract showed 27.9% inhibition of manure and 40% inhibition of diarrhea which Compare to standard [Loperamide] showed 44 % inhibition of feces and 59.97 % inhibition of diarrhea. Methanol steam extract 250 mg/kg reduces 40% pain and at 500 mg/kg reduces 42.5%, which, Compare to the Standard (Diclofenac Na), worked as 77.5% pain induction. All results obtained from the research suggest that the plant's stem has moderately positive Antidiarrheal activity test, Analgesic, and thrombolytic properties. Therefore, considering potential biodiversity, plant ingredients can be widely researched to find their unelected effectiveness and to make use of them as traditional medicines.


Abstract:

The study was conducted at Adola Rede District, Guji Zone, in Southern Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to identify the best adaptable and high yielding Avocado (Persea americana) fruit tree varieties for Midland Agroecology of Guji Zone. Seedlings of grafted Avocado fruit tree varieties were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. A plot size of 10m x 6m was used for each Avocado fruit tree varieties. A plot consisted of two rows of grafted Avocado seedlings. On each row three grafted Avocado seedlings were planted and each plots had six grafted Avocado trees. Based on the objective of this study, vegetative growth parameters, yield and yield components data were collected during the study time. The results of this study revealed that, in terms of Vegetative growth parameters significant differences (at P<0.05) was observed among avocado varieties. In terms of survival rate, the highest survival rate was recorded from Bacon and the least one was Ettinger. The recorded stem thickness data showed that Fuerte variety was significantly higher (at P<0.05) than the others. The tree height data recorded revealed that the maximum and minimum tree heights were observed in Fuerte and Nabal varieties respectively. Moreover, there was a significance (P<0.05) difference in canopy spread among the avocado varieties was observed. Pinkerton had larger canopy spread (4.627m) and least canopy spread was recorded on variety Nabal (1.287m). Avocado fruit length, fruit width, and fruit weight was significantly (P<0.05) different among the varieties. The highest fruit length was recorded from Pinkerton (7.212cm) and the lowest value was found in Bacon (5.833cm). In terms fruit width, the highest was obtained from Bacon (8.333cm) and the least one was recorded from Hass variety (6.033cm). The largest Fruit weight was obtained from Fuerte (0.285kg) and lowest fruit weight was recorded from Hass (0.111kg) avocado. The finding of this study revealed that the average number of fruits per tree of the six improved avocado varieties was varied statistically.  Hass avocado produced a significant maximum number of fruits per tree (382) and Pinkerton variety produced the minimum number of fruits per tree (131). In terms of yield per plot, the maximum fruit yield per plot was obtained from Fuerte (140 kg) and the lower number of yield per plot (110.367kg) was recorded from Ettinger. The recorded total fruit yield per hectare of Fuerte variety was significantly higher than the other varieties. The maximum fruit yield per hectare was obtained from Fuerte (14,372 kg/ha) and the minimum was obtained from Pinkerton (12,262kg/ha). Therefore, Fuerte, Bacon and Hass Avocado fruit tree varieties were recommended for Avocado Producers at Midland Agroecology of Guji Zone and for similar agroecologies.


Abstract:

The recent urbanization trends and changes in land use and land cover have had profound effects on the natural environment. This research seeks to examine the trends and patterns of LULC changes over a period of 32 years and their implications on the environment. The study made use of primary and secondary sources of data. The stratified random sampling technique was used in the selection of sample sites and the administration of 250 questionnaires. Landsat image files for the three-time interval were downloaded from the Global Land Cover Facility website and the various bands were modulated and corrected to reveal land use features using ENVI version 4.3.Change detection and analysis were identified through image differencing in the same geographical area for the three intervals.The findings revealed that agricultural land use decreased from 83.8km2 to 60.4km2, forest cover dropped from 339.24km2 to 330.27km2, whereas settlement land use increased from 4.90km2 to 37.36km2 between 1987 and 2019.The study further revealed that changes in LULC situations in the Buea Municipality have resulted in a host of environmental problems, namely, pollution, loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, water scarcity and floods. The study recommends anup-to-date master plan for Buea and its effective implementation. It also suggests that urbanisation and population growth should be matched with local planning objectives and the involvement of the local population of Buea in developmental issues.


Abstract:

Students’ performance in History and Government in Secondary Schools in Kericho County has been unsatisfactory. The students’ underperformance is an indicator that they do not possess requisite knowledge of the subject. Teaching approaches are among factors that influence learners’ acquisition of knowledge. Perceptions of teaching approaches have also been associated with knowledge acquisition. This paper investigated teachers’ and learners’ perceptions on the effectiveness of Field-Based Study Approach (FBSA) in imparting History and Government knowledge to learners in secondary schools in Kericho County, Kenya. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The study was conducted in public secondary schools in Kericho County, Kenya. The accessible population comprised of 274 History and Government teachers and 7575 form four students in the County. Purposive, stratified, proportionate and simple random sampling techniques were used to select the 163 teachers and 433 form four students’ who participated in the study. Data was collected using Teachers’ Perceptions Questionnaire (TPQ) and Learners’ Perceptions Questionnaires (LPQ). The research tools were validated be five educational research experts in the department of curriculum, instruction and education management. The reliability of research tools were estimated using the Cronbach’s Alpha formula. TPQ and LPQ yielded reliability coefficients of .926 and .856 respectively. Data were analysed with the aid of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). Qualitative data generated by open-ended items were organized in theme pertinent to the study, tallied and summarized using test for independence and the results accepted or rejected at 0.05 level of significance. The results revealed that perceptions of the teachers and learners on the effectiveness of FBSA in imparting History and Government to learners were positive, but not related. The findings from the study may provide history teachers with an insight of the effectiveness of FBSA in imparting History and Government knowledge to learners. The findings may also assist school administrators, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development in developing policies and practices that incorporate use of FBSA during instruction.