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April,2016 Issue

1.A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON SELECTIVE MAC PROTOCOLS FOR UNDERWATER WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

Md. Moniruzzaman and Abdullah Al Mahfazur Rahman

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Dhaka, BANGLADESH

Abstract:

The underwater sensor communication supports a large number of applications, like, oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, navigation and tactical surveillance data collection. In Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network (UASN), sensor nodes are deployed to a given area to do collaborative work.  Underwater communication relies mainly on acoustic waves. Limited bandwidth, high propagation delay, high bit error rates and limited battery power etc are the major communication challenges for underwater communications. These issues pose great challenges in underwater Media Access Control (MAC) protocol design. Although many novel protocols are designed for terrestrial MAC protocols but they perform inefficiently when deployed directly in an underwater environment. On the other hand, a range of MAC protocols has been explored in underwater networks to meet certain communication criteria. In this paper, several contentions based and contention free MAC protocols have been studied to understand major trend of MAC protocol developments. Special     focus is given on MACA based protocols. Relative advantages and disadvantages of the discussed protocols are also highlighted and future research scope is also explored.


Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of effective microorganisms (EM) along with cattle manure on growth and yield of capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) in field conditions at the Crop farm, Eastern University, Sri Lanka. This study had six treatments with three replicates and it was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design. The treatments were inorganic fertilizer application (T1), no fertilizer application (T2) and different rates of cattle manure (5-20 ton/ha) with EM (from T3 to T6). The results shows that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in canopy height among the treatments upto 20 DAT. However, remarkable variation (P<0.05) was observed at 30 DAT and T4 had highest canopy height. Among the tested  treatments, there  was  no  significant  difference  (P>0.05)  in  number of leaves per  plant at 10, 20 and 30 DAT which was  confirmed  with  P values  of 0.197, 0.700 and 0.075 and  chi-square  of 7.33, 3.00 and 10.00 respectively. The diameter of pod was increased upto 3rd picking thereafter it was decreased in most of the treatments. Increasing cattle manure from 5 tons/ha to 10 tons/ha, increased number of pods per plant. The fresh weight of pods, number of seeds per pod as well as dry weights of pods and seeds were high in cattle manure (10 tons/ha) with EM. The present study suggests that cattle manure at the rate of 10 tons/ha along with EM would be the most suitable treatment to obtain high vegetative and reproductive growth of capsicum in sandy regosol.


3.COMPREHENSIVE STUDY & OVERVIEW OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

Pravin Wararkar and Dr. H K Dahule

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Nagpur, INDIA

Abstract:

Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, ‘nanotechnology’ refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom-up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products. The main unifying theme is the control of matter on a scale smaller than one micrometer, normally approximately 1 to 100 nanometers, as well as the fabrication of devices of these sizes. It is a highly multidisciplinary field, drawing from fields such as applied physics, superamolecular chemistry and even electrical and mechanical engineering. Nanotechnology can be seen as extension of existing sciences using newer and more modern term.


4.HYPOGLYCAEMIC EFFECT OF VRIDDHADARU IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RABBITS

Vivek P, Jayakumari D and Jayasree P

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Tamilnadu, INDIA

Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus is the most important non communicable disease, playing a notorious role in the devastating phase of public health. Ayurveda, the life science provides astonishing results in such life style disorders. Vriddhadaru an excellent Ayurvedic drug and Argyreia nervosa has been traditionally used as Vriddhadaru, efective in diabetic management with promising results. But, the anti-diabetic effect of the drug has not been scientifically appreciated. This study ascertains the hypoglycaemic effect of the drug in a pre-clinical model. In this study, alloxan induced 18 diabetic albino rabbits were divided into 3 groups with 6 rabbits in each group. On the day of experiment, after assessing the fasting blood sugar levels in all 18 rabbits, root powder of the test drug as CMC suspension in the dose of 0.56 g/kg body weight and the standard drug, metformin; in the dose of 0.024 mg/kg body weight were administered to the first group and second group respectively. The third group was kept as control and administered with distilled water alone. Later, the blood glucose values were taken at 1st, 3rd and 5th hour and the obtained values were compared with in the group and between the groups. The blood glucose levels were compared using paired t test for within the group analysis and by student t test for between the group analysis. Within the group comparison of blood sugar level in group 1 showed significant decrease in the level at 1st hour and 5th hour from the corresponding fasting blood sugar levels. In group 2, significant decrease of blood sugar level was seen between fasting blood sugar level and 1st hour value and also in fasting blood sugar value and 5th hour value. Between group comparison of group group 2 showed significant difference in the reducing the blood sugar level at different time intervals. Ayurvedic literature proposes Pramehaghna property to the drug Vriddhadaru which is substantiated through this pre-clinical trial. But the effect is comparatively less with that of the standard drug. This may be due to the absence of strong antioxidant and antidiabetic chemical constituents in this plant. From the above study, it is inferred that Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. is less effective in reducing blood sugar levels in Alloxan induced diabetic rabbits against the standard drug Metformin.


Abstract:

Rotavator is a tillage machine designed for preparing land suitable for sowing seed (without overturning of the soil), for eradicating weeds, mixing manure or fertilizer into soil, to break up and remove pastures for crushing clods etc. rotavator is a better implement which does the operation like tillage, pulverizing and levelling of land at a time. Hence, the study was conducted to improvise the working of rotavatorwith particular reference to minimize dust accumulation near the operator including analysis of field efficiency of rotavator and effectiveness of the attachment.Developed novel attachment consisted of a metal sheet (MS-14 gauge) equal to the length of the rotavator bolted with a rubber belt suitably.
The effective field capacity and theoretical field capacity of rotavator was observed as 0.42 ha/h and 0.52 ha/h, respectively. Thus, field efficiency obtained was observed as 80.76 %.The measurement of dust was performed by an instrument Respirable Dust Sampler (RDS) using air flow rate and total suspended particulate matter in it. The effectiveness of the rotavator attachment for minimization of dust accumulation to operator was obtained about 76%. The attachment can easily be fabricated by a local manufacturer in affordable price. This also offers simplicity in fitting, adjustments etc. during working in the field.


Abstract:

The density and ultrasonic velocity of some pyrazole derivatives have been studied in dimethyl formamide and dimethyl sulphoxide solutions at 298.15 K. From the experimental data, some acoustical parameters have been evaluated to understand the molecular interaction occurring in these solutions.


Abstract:

The characteristics performance of the kieserite based Cu2ZnSnS4 based solar cell is investigated using a simulation program called Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS). The cell structure is based on p-type Cu2ZnSnS4(CZTS) compound semiconductor as the absorber layer and ZnS as window layer. Al doped ZnO (AZO) is used as the transparent conductive oxide layer, which acts as the front contact of the cell. I study the influence of the operating temperature, doping concentration, thickness of the different layers. The band-gap variation of the absorber CZTS layer is also investigated. The thickness of the absorber layer is varied from 800 nm up to 3.5 µm and found substantial increase in the efficiency. The increased working temperature has a strong influence on the solar cell efficiency and the temperature coefficient is calculated to be about -0.17%/K. The highest efficiency is achieved by varying the carrier concentration profile of the absorber layer. All these simulation results will give some important guides for feasibly fabricating higher efficiency CZTS solar cells.


Abstract:

Appendix is the most highlighted vestigial organ both due to literature concerning it and also due to the frequency of surgical intervention needed. Appendicitis is one of the most common causes for the appendicectomy. It is also a fact that many appendices are excised even without any pathology. This may be due to the fact that appendicitis diagnosis is still to a large extent based on the surgeon’s diagnosis. A retrospective study comparing the histomorphometric characteristics of normal and inflamed appendix was conducted to ascertain the changes in the appendix due to the inflammation process. A significant difference in wall thickness and lymphoid follicle size was noted between normal and inflamed appendix.


9.COMPREHENSIVE STUDY & REAL TIME APPLICATIONS OF BLUE EYE TECHNOLOGY

Pravin Wararkar, H K Dahule, Sreyashrao Surapreddi and Gyandeep Bhumarkar

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Nagpur, INDIA

Abstract:

Blue Eye Technology is the name given Human Recognition Venture to allow people to interact with computers in a more natural manner. The technology aims to enable devices to recognize and use natural input, such as facial expressions. The initial developments of this project include scroll mice and other input devices that sense the user's pulse, monitor his or her facial expressions, and the movement of his or her eyelids. The BLUEEYES technology aims at creating computational machines that have perceptual and sensory ability like those of human beings. It uses non-obtrusive sensing method, employing most modern video cameras and microphones to identify the user’s actions through the use of imparted sensory abilities. The machine can understand what a user wants, where he is looking at, and even realize his physical or emotional states.


10.WATER CONSERVATION: STRATEGIES AND SOLUTIONS

Mamta Kumari* and Jagdeep Singh

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Gujarat, INDIA

Abstract:

India has 16% of the world’s population and only 4% of the world’s water resources, which are depleting rapidly. The demand for water is expected to grow from 40 billion cubic metres (bcm) currently to around 220 bcm in 2025. Water is one of the most important inputs essential for crops. Both it’s shortage and excess affects the growth and development of the plants, yields and quality of produce. There are numerous methods to reduce such losses and to improve soil moisture. These are mulching, cropping, planting of trees, utilization of fog or dew by net-surfacing traps or polythene sheets, contour farming, transfer of water from surplus areas to deficit areas by inter-linking water systems through canals, desalination technologies such as distillation, electro-dialysis and reverse osmosis, use of efficient watering systems such as drip irrigation and sprinklers will reduce the water consumption by plants. The most important step in the direction of finding solutions to issues of water and environmental conservation is to change people's attitudes and habits; this includes each one of us.


Abstract:

The sensitivity analysis the validity ranges for the optimal objective function value and optimal basis.  Although there is some benefit in predicting the effect of changes in data, it has been shown that these indicators do have their limits. Repeated solving of the model provides the best method of sensitivity analysis and the Aims modeling system has some powerful facilities to support this type of sensitivity analysis. The design and operation of large constructing project has become of concern to an ever increasing segment of the scientific and professional world. It is very difficult task to complete the selected project within the range of Budget resources. Large project involves a lot of activities and barrier to schedule and estimate. Sometimes we haven’t enough money to complete a project work. In this work a new idea is developed, which is very effective to find out the maximum benefits by formulating a constructing project, applying linear programming and using simplex methods. The linear requirements and non-negativity conditions state that the variables cannot assume negative values. It is not possible to have negative resources.


12.PERFORMANCE OF DIRECT SEEDED RICE (Oryza sativa L.) UNDER DIFFERENT SEED RATES

Harris, K.D., Vijayaragavan, R.* and Iqbal, B.

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Chenkalady, SRI LANKA

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted at the Rice Research Station, at Sammanthurai in Ampara, Sri Lanka to assess the performance of direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different seed rates. This experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Five seed rates viz., 3, 5 (recommended), 7, 9 and 10 bu/ha were included in the study, which is equivalent to 61.5, 102.5, 143.5, 184.5 and 205 kg/ha, respectively. The area of each plot was 4 x 3 m2. The seeds were broadcasted and the seedlings were maintained as per the recommendation by the Department of Agriculture. 
The results revealed that the seed rate (143.5 kg/ha) significantly increased the number of tillers/ha, straw, roots, total dry matter and economic yield/ha. The lowest economic yield/ha was obtained at the seed rate of 61.5 kg/ha and highest economic yield/ha was obtained at the seed rate of 143.5 kg/ha (7 bu/ha) whereas the lowest grain yield/plant was recorded at the highest seed rate of 205 kg/ha and highest economic yield/plant was recorded at the lowest seed rate (widest density) of 61.5 kg/ha.  Therefore, the seed rate of 143.5 kg/ha (7 bu/ha) produced maximum economic yield than the recommended seed rate of 102.5 kg/ha (5 bu/ha). So the performance of direct seeded rice (BG 94-1) @143.5 kg/ha (7 bu/ha) is the best choice for obtaining maximum yield in the Ampara District.


13.HR PRACTICES IN STATE BANK OF INDIA

P. CHINNADURAI

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Tamilnadu, INDIA

Abstract:

Indian banking industry is functioning under the challenges thrown in by market economy. To survive in the highly competitive scenario, managers are being pressurised to improve quality, increase productivity, cut down cost and eliminate inefficiency. The collective efforts of the employer and the employees assume relevance in this context. And this is where HR practices can play a crucial role. The success of the Banks depends not only on the satisfaction of their customers but also the satisfaction level of the employees working in the banks. The level of satisfaction of the bank employees can be ensured and enhanced by effective HR-practices adopted by the Banks. In this regard, the author has made an attempt to verify the HR-practices of one among the Public Sector Banks situated in Nagappattinam District of Tamil Nadu. The results of the study have been discussed in this paper.


14.EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOSTABLE LIPASE FROM THERMUS SPP.: AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ISOLATE

Anupama P. Pathak*, Mayuri S. Sarsar, Swati R. Jadhav and Gautam T.Kamble

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Maharashtra, INDIA

Abstract:

Two thermophilic organisms were isolated from soil samples which were collected from vicinity of Local oil extraction industry, Dairy industry, Pulp paper industry, MIDC, Nanded, Maharashtra, India by composite sample collection method. Of these, one efficient lipase producing Gram negative rod shaped, non motile bacteria was selected and designated as TS 6. The isolate was identified as Thermus species on the basis of cultural, microscopic and biochemical characters. It showed optimum growth on nutrients agar medium at pH 7 and temperature 60˚C. Production and partial purification of lipase was carried out and it was recorded as 63.7 U/ml.


Abstract:

The facial index is lengthnose to the of the face from root of bottom of thechin, expressed as a percentage of the greatest breadth across the cheek bones. Facial differences are much more marked in relation to face than elsewhere, so it is very usefulanthropologically. For these 50 subjects of Qyamkhani Muslims ana 50 subjects of Rajputs Community between the age group of 18-40were taken and their facial index was calculated and compared to each other. The result indicated that average facial index inRajputscommunity (95.14 ± 3.08) was higher than Qyamkhani Muslims community (93.65 ± 3.32).Mostly they were Hyperleptoprosopic and Leptoprosopic. Average facial height (cm) in Qyamkhani Muslims and Rajputs communities were 11.23 ± 0.63 and 11.53 ± 0.47 and average facial breadth (cm) is 12.01 ± 0.72 and 12.17 ± 0.52.


Abstract:

Indian subcontinent has its own hydrological importance in the world as it is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, hosting ∼23% of the global population within only ∼3% of the world’s land area. It encompasses one of the glob’s largest river systems of world with many peculiar rivers. These rivers remain the prime sources not only for agrarian & industrial water demands but also to build up critically required groundwater reserves i.e. aquifers. From Indian context these rivers are endowed with rich water resources, encompassing about 45000 km long riverine systems criss-cross the length and breadth of the country with 20 major river basins, 46 medium river basins and 14 minor/desert river basins. This is one face of the coin, while the other face releases apprehensions towards factors like judicious utilization/conservation/management of river water at one end while assessing and mitigating various kinds of pollutions of river water bodies on other end. Rapidly increasing population, intensive agricultural operations, rising standards of living, exponential growth of industrialization and urbanisation have exposed water resources, in general, and rivers, in particular, to greater degrees of pollution. Under such scenario looking into the recent threats of climate change, the rivers flowing in and around industrial areas/commercial agricultural interventions, demands pressing evaluations in regards to quantitative as well as qualitative pollution of river water bodies. Present paper describe an updated status of river pollution in regards to Gujarat, the most leading industrial state of country by incorporating probable influences , causes and effects of surface water as well ground water resources in the region. It is evident from the findings of various researchers that the conjunctive consequences of over exploitation/ deterioration of surface & ground water resources tends to pollute not only the rivers but the underground water bodies too. Considering this point of view, the theme of this write up is set as “river water pollution” where an attempt is made to overview the issue with its causes , effects and probable solutions and food for thought . A thin volume of stuff towards national scenario is opted , followed by an in depth updated statue of water resources of Gujarat state being more inclined towards pollution of major  rivers  of Gujarat and also the adjacent bodies of surface and groundwater resources. It could be of some utilities for water resources manager, engineers, environmental experts, field officers, planners and policy makers.


17.Design of a CMOS Comparator using Tanner Tool software

Pravin Wararkar and H K Dahule

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Maharashtra, INDIA

Abstract:

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) is a technology for constructing integrated circuits. CMOS technology is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for several analog circuits such as image sensors (CMOS sensor), data converters, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication. CMOS is also sometimes referred to as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (or COS-MOS). The words "complementary-symmetry" refer to the fact that the typical design style with CMOS uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-typemetal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) for logic functions. In this research work, Design of a CMOS Comparator using Tanner Tool software is carried out.


18.INHIBITION OF CRYSTALLIZATION OF CALCIUM OXALATE BY THE EXTRACTION OF MIMOSA PUDICA (L)

Vivekanandadasan Vennila and Panneerselvam Ramya

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Tamilnadu, INDIA

Abstract:

Objective: Mimosa pudica is used in the treatment ofleprosy, dysentery, vaginal and uterine complaints, inflammations, burning sensation, asthma, leucoderma, fatigue andblood diseases.The present study is designed to evaluate the antiurolithiatic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of different parts of M.pudica. Methods: Thein-vitro inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal formation byaqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaf, root and flower extracts of M. pudicaat different concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000µg) were investigated by the time course measurement of turbidity changes due to the crystal nucleation and aggregation in the synthetic urine at 620nm by means of a spectrophotometer. Results: The aqueous and ethanolicextracts of different parts of M. pudicaremarkably inhibits the crystal formation in dose dependent manner.The aqueous extract ofleaf, root and flowers have more antiurolithic activity as compared to ethanolic extracts. Leaf extrtact of M. pudicashowedmaximum antiurolithic activity when compared to other parts. Conclusion: Aqueous extract ofleaf, fruit and flower of M. pudicashowed maximum inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crytallisation in synthetic urine than ethanolic extract. Results guide us for the further detailed investigation and development of new drugs from this medicinal plant for  urolithiasis.


Abstract:

Rice is the staple food of the inhabitants of Sri Lanka and Anuradhapura district is one of the major paddy producing district and highly vulnerable to changes in climate. This study was conducted to find out the current status of paddy production in the Anuradhapura district. Proportionate sampling was done and 100 samples were selected for the study. Primary data were collected from the sampled paddy farmers of Anuradhapura through personal interviews using questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and Chi square analysis was done. Results revealed that the annual average income from paddy farming was Rs. 77800.00 per acre. Mean cultivated area was 2.15 acre in Yala and in Maha it was 2.24 acre. As well as the amount of paddy production was in Yala 1408 kilogram per acre and also in the Maha 1453 kilogram per acre. Most of the farmers were cultivating in both seasons, and 8% farmers were cultivating only in Maha season. In Mihinthale DS division 1131.825 Acres of lands and in Nuwaragampalatha central DS division 1976.82 Acres of lands were damaged by adverse climate effects during 2014/15 Maha season.  A highly significant association observed between the Income from paddy farming and education level of paddy farmers (X2=38.23, p < 0.01) and between engagement in paddy farming and education level of paddy farmers (X2=24.49, p < 0.01). It is recommended to strengthen the agricultural extension systems with particular attention to paddy farmers who have limited resources to confront climate change.


Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto immune disorder mainly affects synovial joints, which is most common in females than male. Mainly charecterised by the Pain, stiffness in joints, and general debility, etc. A dramatic shift in drug discovery brings a significant change in RA management.But these medicines are having their own adverse effects on prolongedusage. In recent days it is seen that Healthprofessionals looking towards evidence based alternative as well as complementary therapies along with conventional one to manage chronic conditions like RA. Such an integrative approach is definitely helpful in improving pain pattern as well as quality of life in RA patients.