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September,2017 Issue

1.LIQUID WASTES TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL IN RWANDA

Uwajambo Alice, Yu Ming, Uwitonze Nestor, Nsengumuremyi Donath, Ntihinyuzwa Narcisse

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CHINA

Abstract:

Rwanda country is located in east part of Africa, and its population is about 10 million. Because of the pressure on limited resources produced by growing number population day by day, nowadays Rwanda is facing serious issues related to the environmental protection. The government puts more effort in searching of new rules and strategies of how to sustain the environment. The core of this research is to review a comprehensive picture of liquid wastes and disposal in Rwanda and to make recommendations for their improvement.It is important to note that some Articles set by the good Government will be listed in this review paper. The first part of this work contains introduction, the second part covers specific issues and legal responses. In part three some recommendations are presented and the last section concludes this work.


Abstract:

Introduction: Didactic lectures are the most commonly used method of teaching in many medical and paramedical institutes. There are certain drawbacks in this method. It is important to evaluate whether the learning objectives have been accomplished. In the present study pre-test and post-test with true and false answers are introduced for second year physiotherapy students in “hydrotherapy” lecture and assessed the effect on gaining and retention of knowledge acquired at the end of the lecture.
Materials and methods: 57 second year students were evaluated from two different batches in 2016 and 2017. Pre-test paper and the post-test paper were same, consisting of 30 questions with either true or false answer.  Students were given 15 minutes for answering the pre-test paper before the lecture begins and they were given 15 minutes to answer post-test paper at the end of the lecture. Lecture hand out was given after collecting of the pot-test papers.
Results and discussion: Analysis in the paired t test for pre- and post-test according to the mean and the standard deviation, the p value was < 0.005 at the test. Therefore according to the statistical analysis it can conclude that at the 5% of significant level, the post-test paper scored more compared to the pre-test and the students improved their knowledge after the lecture.
Conclusion: Giving pre-test paper and post-test paper will enhance the students concentration on the lectures especially in a didactic lecture and it will improve the knowledge they gained at the end of the lecture. Post-test paper will improve the immediate memory and it will help to remember the content of the lecture for a longer period. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that giving a pre-test and a post-test will enhance students’ knowledge and the memory in a didactic lecture. 


Abstract:

There has been the minimum contribution towards searching identity and personality traits in combination of religiosity and spirituality of Greek students, which becomes (so combinatorically) for the first time at a scientific level. Any effort to connect personality matters with others, such as religiosity seems venturous because no specific scientific definitions of the above really exist.Thus, becomes a case of high interest in the realms of Psychology and religion, not simply because it is a scientific search but also because it attempts to extract a poll out of an average of religiosity of the contemporary Greek society. This search also looks into student identity, providing very useful information.


Abstract:

The present study aims to evaluate the histopathological lesions and oxidative stress responses of chlorpyrifos in the gill of freshwater teleost fish, Pseudetroplus maculatus. Chlorpyrifos was exposed to fish at sublethal concentration (one-tenth of LC50-96 h; 0.661µg/L) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h maintaining the control group. The weight of gill decreased significantly only after 96 h of chlorpyrifos treatment. The activity of superoxide dismutase increased significantly (P<0.05) after 48 h in time-dependent manner, and the catalase activity was significantly (P<0.05) increased at 72 and 96 h of chlorpyrifos exposure. The level of hydrogen peroxide increased significantly (P<0.05) after 48 h and the lipid peroxidation was found to be increased significantly (P<0.05) immediately after 24 h of the toxicant exposure in time-dependent manner. Histopathological lesions in the gill after 96 h of chlorpyrifos exposure include degeneration of gill arches, epithelial uplifting, hyperplasia and aneurysm in primary lamellae, degeneration and necrosis of the secondary lamellae and vacuolization. The present study conclude that acute exposure to chlorpyrifos at 0.661µg/L concentration has the ability to induce oxidative stress as well as damages the gill tissues of fish and those effects are time-dependent. 


Abstract:

Thin film of Al doped ZnO has been fabricated by depositing n-ZnO (5 mol% Al2O3 doped ZnO) layer on glass substrate. The XRD analysis confirms that all the three films have (002) preferential orientation with hexagonal wurtzite structure. From Hall measurement, all the films shown n- type conductivity with increased Career concentration which confirms the direct proportionality of career concentration with sputter time. The resistivity is found to be decreased with increase in sputter time due to fewer mismatches from the reflectance spectrum, the reflectance value is found to be as less as possible 35%. So that the films can be used as antireflection coating in solar cells. The Band gap energy of the films is found from Tauc’s plot and it is found that (2.49eV) band gap value increases due to Burstein-moss effect. 


Abstract:

Some of the assumptions of the classical inventory models are not fulfilled with current situations. One of the assumptions is that the items received in a lot are all perfect items. Many times it happens that items received in a lot are not of 100% good quality. Some of the items are of defective quality in the lot received. Another assumption is that as soon as items are received, payments are made. In today’s reality situation, the supplier allows certain fixed period known as permissible delay for payment to the retailer for settling the amount of items received. Keeping this reality, a deterministic inventory model with imperfect quality items is developed when deterioration rate is different during a cycle. Here it is assumed that demand is a function of time and price. Shortages are allowed and completely backlogged. Numerical example is taken to support the model. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out for parameters.


Abstract:

The communication technology revolutionized all aspects of life. Various new innovations are introduced by this technology. One could see the example of social networking websites. Although, these platforms are used primarily by the people for social networking, however, through these media people also share their experience and ideas about a product or service. Vast use of Facebook around the globe has made it a new and important advertising platform, where businesses place their ads to reach their prospective customers. This is probably because Facebook allows businesses to target specific customer and promoting their product or services through effective advertisements. This study conceptually investigates the advertisement patterns on Facebook and their effectiveness which also provide insights into whether consumers take notice of their peer’s activity on Facebook and whether that activity influences consumer purchase intention or not. Growing Facebook based advertising is perhaps an indication that it is becoming an important source of business presentation and the firms are taking Facebook advertisement as a useful strategy to attract customers. Just in a few years, it has become a part of promotional mix of the firms to create awareness in target areas and influence customers mind. Because of its popularity, businesses are placing their ads on Facebook for creating awareness and influencing buying behavior.


8.OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANTS: AN OVERVIEW

Manisha, Whidul Hasan, Richa Rajak and Deepali Jat*

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MADHYA PRADESH

Abstract:

Oxidative stress refers to the imbalance between free radicals and their stabilizing agent’s antioxidant enzymes in the body. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals can be produced by normal cellular metabolism and react with biomolecules like protein, lipid, and DNA to cause cellular damage and responsible for degenerative changes. At low concentration free radicals play a vital role in the physiological regulation and cellular signaling processes but the high level can cause deleterious changes in the cell. Contrary to these antioxidants lowers the oxidants by donating its own electron to stabilize free radical and make it not reactive compound so as to minimize the harmful effects generated by these radicals in the cell. Human life is meant for the realization of scientific knowledge, and then tries to distribute it throughout the world. The materialistic civilization stressing our body, therefore our cell age faster and suffer from deleterious changes which arise in the body. Aging, the word is not new for decades and recently, it has become a new approach of being live healthy and long life till death with the progress in the medical sciences. The aging can be defined as the deleterious changes occur in the cell due to oxidative metabolism in mitochondria.  The overburden of oxidative burst is the cause of conquering cell’s capability of surviving and to meet the challenges of change in the environment with respect to time. Various theories regarding aging have been proposed by various scientists to improve our knowledge about how we age. Aging not only presiding with that of the human but other vertebrates also reproached.


Abstract:

All over the world processed food is well accepted among the people. It is more popular in developed countries as compared to the developing and the underdeveloped countries. There are various factors that supports the huge potential of setting up of the food processing industries in India like, the lifestyle and the eating habits of the people, the range of products that are available in the market, income level of the people, availability of organised retail markets and branded food, increase in the demand at the international level, avilability of technology, acceptance of processed food among the people. But there are other factors also that hinders into the growth or development of the food processing industry in India. They are like, shortage of availability of raw material, credit facility, problems of labour, majority of the people are working in unorgnised sector, shortage of infrastructure, cold storage, elongated supply chain, fragmented supply chain, absence of farmers knowledge and awareness, shortage of R & D etc.This paper is purely based on the data and information available from the secondary sources. It is expected that the information would help in reinforcing the need for the development of the food processing industry. There is a need to work on the obstructions coming on its way of development.


10.LIFE SKILLS INTERVENTION FOR URBAN MALE AND FEMALE ADOLESCENTS OF SHILLONG, MEGHALAYA

Lindsay Murray M Sangma, Prof. (Dr.) Nirupama Prakash

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NEW DELHI

Abstract:

Present Study is an attempt to inculcate Life Skills Intervention for urban male and female adolescents of Shillong, Meghalaya, India. The Objectives of the study were to provide Life Skills Intervention for urban male and female adolescents, to study the impact of Life Skills Intervention before and after the programme. Hypothesis is there will be significant differences between urban male and female adolescents on the basis of life skills intervention. The participants for the present study consisted of 172 urban adolescents, who fall under the age groups of 10 to 19 years. The tools used were demographic profile, Life Skills Assessment Scale (LSAS), (Nair, Subasree & Ranjan, 2010). Purposive Sampling design was applied and selected descriptive research design in phase 1 and in phase 2 pre experimental research design was used. Only single group was included that is experimental group and control was excluded, single group was pretested and then exposed to the intervention programme and later again the experimental group was post tested. The results indicate that intervention given to adolescents indeed brought positive impact among the adolescents showing overall increase in the post-test scores. The result of hypothesis shows that there is no significant difference among male and female adolescents. This shows that the intervention has a considerable impact on both the genders after receiving the intervention. It can, thus, be concluded that both males and females adolescents improved positively in all the ten core life skills.


Abstract:

In this study, cytotoxic abnormalities in Allium cepa by the seed extract of Cycas circinalis, was tested. Different concentrations like 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of seed extract of Cycas circinalis were prepared after shade drying. In order to compare with standard, a control was also maintained. The mitotic indices and chromosomal aberration of control and treatment were calculated. From this study it is proved that, seed extract of Cycas circinalis has capacity to change mitotic indices and chromosomal make up. From this it is clear that Cycas circinalis seed extract has mito-depressive activity on cell division. As the concentration of extract increases, mito-depressive activity also increases. Abnormalities like Nuclear lesions, Strap shaped nucleus, Chromosome Bridges, Micronuclei and Multinuclei were also observed in different concentrations.


12.THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VITAMIN D LEVEL AND PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

Gadhwal AK, Kapuriya S, Kumar M, Meel JK, Sirohi P, Chahar K, Ankit BS, Phogawat M, Agrawal RP

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RAJASTHAN

Abstract:

Background : The role of Vitamin D deficiency in microvascular complications  has been documented. However the effect of vitamin D deficiency on macrovascular complications are not studied extensively. Hence this study evaluate the effect of vitamin D deficiency on macrovascular complications; PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Material and Methods : The study was conducted on 200 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in which 100 patients were having macrovascular complications of diabetes(group 1) and 100 patients without macrovascular complications(group 2). To compare the level of vitamin D, 100 age-sex matched controls without diabetes (group 3) were taken. 25(OH) vitamin D level was measured among all three groups from the serum by ELISA kit. All vascular complications were measured by standard techniques used worldwide.
Results : The mean levels of vitamin D in group 1 , group 2 and group 3 were 7.53±2.14 , 11.23±3.44 and 31.48±6.43 ng/ml respectively. The 25(OH) vitamin D deficient (<20ng/ml) subjects in group 1 ,group 2 and group 3 were 79(79%) ,  56(56%) and 14(14%) respectively. The peripheral artery disease and coronary artery disease were higher in vitamin D deficiency with vitamin D levels less than 30 ng/ml (P<0.05). The number of vascular complications were significantly correlated with vitamin D deficiency severity (p=0.0001)
Conclusion : The study gives us an insight to identify the diabetics with vitamin D deficiency which may be at higher risk of vascular complications. Vitamin D deficiency is higher among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as compared to controls. Vitamin D deficiency is also higher in patients with type 2 diabetes with vascular complications. Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with severity of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Further, a need to undertake future prospective multicenter study with larger number of subjects to find a cause effect relationship between vitamin D deficiency and vascular complications in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This may help us to initiate interventional studies to see the reversal effect with supplementation of vitamin D to halt the progression of vascular complications and atherosclerosis in patients of type 2 DM.


Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to see the effect of emotional intelligence and cognitive style o academic achievement among children with special needs. A total of 75 children with special needs studying in different school and college in sonepat distinct were randomly. Cognitive style inventory (CSI) prepared by Parveen Kumar Jha, Emotional intelligence inventory (EII) prepared by Dr.S.K.Mangal and previous year result for academic achievement were used for the collection of data in n the present study. Pearson product moment correlation technique was used for data analysis. After data analysis this study found that there was significance relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of students with special needs. There was significant relationship   between cognitive style and academic achievement of students with special needs. It was also found that there is no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and cognitive style of students with special needs.


Abstract:

It is apparent from continuous and extensive research that employees in every sector of economy are going through a great problem of job stress resulting in worsening the performance of employee. Stress is considered as the harmful emotional feeling that occurs when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker.  Stresses of employees are caused by stressors that are intolerable, unenviable, or menace in the employee’s instantaneous workplace environment. The purpose of this study is to check the association between stress and job performance of cotton textile industry employees. For performing this study, random sampling technique is used to select the employees. The corresponding data is collected using structured questionnaire, and interview method to review the interconnection between stress and performance. The findings disclosed that the job stress doesn’t have an influence on employees’ job performance.


Abstract:

This paper calculates the Expectation of Life without Disability for Sri Lanka. No one has ever attempted to calculate health expectancies up to now for Sri Lanka and hence, this paper will be the first of its kind and can be regarded as a great contribution to the field of Sri Lankan demography. Life expectancy is composed of lengths of time spent in different states of health until death. These lengths of time in different states of health are health expectancies and they combine information on both mortality and morbidity. The present paper contains estimates of "Disability-Free Life Expectancy" calculated using a method devised by Sullivan and applicable to any state of health definition. The Sullivan health expectancy reflects the current health of a real population adjusted for mortality levels and it is independent of age structure. Health expectancy calculated by Sullivan’s method is the number of remaining years, at a particular age, which an individual can expect to live in a healthy state. The data used were the age-specific prevalence (proportions) of the population in unhealthy state, and age-specific mortality information taken from a period life table. Sullivan health expectancy is not very sensitive to the size of the age groups, and thus an abridged life table was used. It was observed that the total life expectancy for men and women was 72 and 78.6 years, respectively, for the 2011-13 period. The analysis on healthy life expectancy showed that it is 64.2 for males and 67.1 for females. This suggests that the gap between total life expectancy was 6.6 years between men and women but the health expectancy was only 2.9 years. In addition, proportion of life spent in disability-free state was 85.4 for women and 89.1 for men. This indicates that women spent more time in disability state compared to men. In other words, the majority of extra years of life among females were spent in poor health; females live 6.6 years longer than males, but only had 2.9 years longer in good health.