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Welcome To IJARR

International Journal of Advanced Research and Review (IJARR) is a peer reviewed, open access International Scientific ONLINE Journal dedicated for rapid publication (monthly) of high quality original research articles, case reports as well as review articles in all subjects. IJARR with an internationally recognized editorial board emphasizes on producing high quality research content.

We intend to build mutually beneficial and long-lasting relationships with our authors and provide them full support throughout the publishing and the post-publishing processes.


Latest Issue, September 2020

Click On the Title to Read Abstract

The planet is overpopulated due to extreme and paced population growth. Resources are almost depleted and the only solution to a global problem presents itself as sustainability. In order to resolve population growth and ecology centered problems, humanity explores contemporary fields such as bioarchitecture as mentioned long time ago by (Yeang, 2000). This search has brought forth new approaches such as green buildings, smart buildings and high rises that are automated and eco structures able to host a large quantity of people. As a result of the projection to maintain a valid quality of life away from pollution, noise, outside interference and secure with the scope of creating a protected indoor habitat, shell implementations are widely used in the last 20 years.
The study explores innovative materials and contemporary implementations on mile stone structures by presenting and evaluating the examples provided as well as exploring the qualities on automated smart buildings with facade shell systems focusing on sustainability. The article particularly centers on significant features of shell systems covering the structures. Examples selected for the study are prominent projects by renowned designers. The study provides informative highlights on these projects in order to focus and bring insight on a design related social and ecological argument.As the study explores smart building systems on sustainability features and requirements, it focuses specifically on shell systems that have effects on ecology and design.


With the introduction of CDF in 2003 it was expected that every constituency would set aside a considerable amount of money from the CDF kitty to finance education in the respective public schools. Contrary to the given ideal situation, most of the named services still lack in secondary schools Kuresoi North Constituency. In most schools, many bright and deserving students do not access bursaries and some of those who benefit from it still drop out of school for lack of consistency in the allocation of the very bursaries. Most schools do not have sufficient classrooms to provide ample environment for quality learning.  The purpose of this study was to assess the utilization of constituency development fund in enhancing quality secondary school education in Kuresoi North Constituency, Nakuru County. The study was guided by three objectives which investigated issues that included: the utilization of CDF fund in bursary scheme and the utilization of CDF fund in infrastructural development in enhancing quality secondary education among secondary education in Kuresoi North Constituency, Nakuru County. Resource-Based View Theory was adopted in explaining the utilization of CDF in ensuring that resources are equally distributed in accessibility of education.  The study embraced descriptive research design and focused in secondary education in Kuresoi North Constituency, Nakuru County. The study targeted 23 school principals, 23 Board of Management (BOM) Chairpersons, 240 BOM members and 7 Constituency Development Fund Committee (CDFC) member. Nassiuma’s (2000) formula was used to get a sample size of 80 respondents. Data was collected through interviews and questionnaires so as to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. The validity and reliability of the research instruments was established before collecting data. For reliability this study obtained a correlation coefficient of 0.7. The study used SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 20 to analyze data where computation on frequencies and percentages was done. The study established that late disbursement of CDF funds in bursary scheme has contributed to borrowing in schools. The study further revealed that schools are awarded CDF funds on infrastructure depending on their needs. From the findings the study recommended that the amount of the bursary awarded should be increased. The also recommended that an independent committee should be formed to audit the distribution and utilization of CDF to ensure it achieve the intended goals.


Alcohol Abuse is known to be one of the highest social problems in the world that is commonly practiced, especially among the women. This report is based on the study that was conducted to assess the extent and effects of alcohol abuse among the young women in garden compound, in line with objectives which are; To assess the level of alcohol consumption among women, to identify factors that lead to alcohol consumption among women, to evaluate the effect and challenges that comes with alcohol consumption among women, to investigate the impact of alcohol consumption among women on the process of socialization, to critically analyze the impact of alcohol consumption among women on national development, to make recommendation on how the government can control and regulate the consumption of alcohol among women.
Alcohol Abuse means excessive and compulsive drinking of alcohol. However, when one continuously drinks alcoholic drinks excessively and cannot live without taking the alcoholic drinks, this situation is known as alcoholism. Alcoholism/alcohol abuse has been a very huge problem in Zambia, it is known to be cause of many socio-economic problems in the country and it has hazardous impacts on the health of consumers, as well as on their environment. Alcohol Abuse/Alcoholism is highly practiced now by most young women in Zambia, this is very saddening and it has been going on for many years which is why I chose to conduct a study on alcohol abuse among the women in garden compound, Lusaka district, Zambia in order to assess on effects and the extent of alcohol abuse among the women. However, from the discoveries in the study, the women consume Alcohol for various reasons; some drink for leisure, pleasure, for relaxation, for celebration etc.
According to the study, there are various effects of alcohol abuse; the drinkers feel happy, dizzy, hyper-active, numb, some become sexually active, and some of the respondents become aggres-sive, sharpness of sight is lost, cirrhosis of the liver etc. Majority of the respondents know the effects of Alcohol Abuse out of personal experience, were taught by a teacher, friend or guardian which are; damage of body organs, causes memory loss and lack of concentration, brings about financial problems and poverty, brings about destructive behavior, it increases the number of school dropouts and early pregnancies, it increases crime rate, and other various effects.

However, some respondents happen to know the impacts of Alcohol Abuse on the Environment which are; Alcohol Abuse causes damage of property, it leads to crime and brings aboutconflicts, it causes pollution (land pollution and noise pollution), it brings poverty in families and creates joblessness, causes less productivity among the youth, and no proper society growth. Although Alcohol Dependence (Addiction); alcohol dependence is a situation where a consumer of alcohol cannot live without alcohol because their psychological, sociological and physiological system depends on alcohol; the alcohol distorts the way the body functions. Majority of the respondents think Alcohol is good for their health they do not plan on withdrawing or reducing from consuming Alcohol due to various reasons; it refreshes their mind, helps them to ease stress, it burns fats, it helps them to kill boredom; and they do not plan on withdrawing or reducing from consuming Alcohol because they are addicted to it. Most respondents have been consuming Alcohol as early as 16-25yrs and some of them take the risk of drinking Alcohol and driving. Even so, majority of the respondents have experienced health problems due to Alcohol consumption such as; fever, stomach pains and gases, spinal problem, fighting, they don’t go for work, lack of appetite, loss of memory, lack of concentration, mal-absorption of nutrients etc.
However, most respondents who consume Alcohol get engaged in risky sexual practices such as; having unprotected sex while drunk, having sex and not remembering everything that happens during the act that may lead to spread of HIV/AIDS and STIs. From the study, it was discovered that most people who have someone in their family or friends who consumes Alcohol also consume Alcohol. This shows that a person’s environment can also contribute to them resulting to Alcohol consumption.


The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of project team management on implementation of county government health funded projects in Mombasa County. The study was guided by the following objectives: to determine the effect of project team training on project implementation, project team communication on implementation of county government health funded projects, project team composition on implementation of county government health funded projects and project team motivation on implementation of county government health funded projects in Mombasa County. The research was guided by the following theories; competency theory, communication theory and recruitment theory. Project team management empirical and literature findings suggested a significant relationship among the study variables. The research adopted descriptive research design where closed ended questionnaires were presented to respondents working in ongoing county government health funded projects in public health facilities within Mombasa County. The research questionnaire adopted the form of a Likert scale. The sample size of the study was 165 team players in the county government health funded projects; however, only 140 successfully contribute to the research. The research used both primary data (questionnaires) and secondary data which included information gathered from project management books, past studies, journals, newspapers etc. A pilot study was conducted to ascertain the validity and reliability of the questionnaires. Reliability was tested using Cronbach alpha. Data collected was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 24) and multi-linear regression analysis to test the relationship between study variables. Hypothesis testing of the study variables project team training, communication, composition, motivation in relation to project implementation was conducted using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient method. Data analysis yielded a positive correlation between the study variables. Conclusions derived from this research study highlighted that there exists a strong correlation between project team management and implementation of county government health funded projects. The researcher recommends adoption of project team management practices in execution of health projects in Mombasa County.


Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. and D.sissoides Wight & Arn. are the two important precious timber tree species of India. D. latifolia is distributed in many parts of the country from the sub-Himalayan tract to Southern India, whereas D.sissoides has a restricted distribution in the Western Ghats, from the hills of Karnataka southwards to Pulneys and Kerala. Of late, the populations of D. latifolia and D.sissoides have been dwindling considerably in the forest areas and D.latifolia has been categorised as “Vulnerable” in the Red Data book of IUCN. The study on regeneration of forest trees has important implications for the management of forest genetic resources, especially that of precious timber species like D.latifolia and  D.sissoides. In this context, a study was undertaken during 2011 to 2017 in the forest areas of two States - Kerala and Tamil Nadu to assess the natural regeneration and population structure, so as to determine the status of these species, so that suitable managerial interventions could be made to conserve them.  Out of 14 Forest Divisions of Kerala surveyed, natural regeneration of D.latifolia was found to be good in only six divisions viz. Thrissur, Kannur, Munnar, Malayattoor, Nilambur South and Nemmara. In rest of the eight divisions, saplings were not recorded and only seedlings were available. Of the seven Forest Divisions of Tamil Nadu studied, D.latifolia was recorded in six divisions. Salem division exhibited good regeneration, whereas it was fair in Erode, Coimbatore and Tirunelveli divisions and there was no regeneration in Theni and Dharmapuri divisions.  Presence of D.sissoides was recorded in only seven divisions of Kerala and among them in five divisions viz. South Wayanad, Chalakudy, Thrissur, Palakkad and Munnar there was no regeneration. In Mannarkad and Nemmara divisions, only seedlings were present and saplings were totally absent. Among the seven forest divisions surveyed in Tamil Nadu, there was no regeneration of D.sissoides in Coimbatore, Theni and Tirunelveli divisions. Saplings were not recorded in Gudalur division and only seedlings were available. Thus, overall natural regeneration of D.sissoides in both the States was found to be in an “alarming” situation. The girth class-wise population of D.latifolia trees in Kerala revealed that nine divisions namely Mannarkad, Chalakudy, South Wayanad, North Wayanad, Kannur, Malayattoor, Munnar, Ranni and Thiruvananthapuram had healthy population structure and the rest of the five divisions viz. Palakkad, Nemmara, Nilambur South, Konni and Thrissur had unhealthy population structure.  In Tamil Nadu, D.latifolia populations of Coimbatore, Erode and Theni divisions were of healthy nature, while other divisions like Salem, Dharmapuri and Tirunelveli did not have healthy populations. The population structure of D.sissoides occurring in Mannarkad and Nemmara divisions of Kerala was found to be healthy, while in rest of the five divisions like Chalakudy, Thrissur, Palakkad, South Wayanad and Munnar, it was not of healthy nature. D.sissoides in Theni and Gudalur divisions of Tamil Nadu had more or less healthy populations, whereas Coimbatore and Tirunelveli division did not have healthy population structure. The overall population structure of Dalbergias showed that the contribution of seedlings to the population of saplings and trees was very poor. The seedling and sapling stages were much vulnerable to the impact of fire, grazing and weed competition. An enumeration of the important tree associates of both the species revealed that they have species association characteristic to the respective forest types which harbour them. The present population structure of both the species in Kerala and Tamil Nadu has indicated that they are likely to encounter severe threat in future due to various biotic and abiotic factors, including the climate change, if timely managerial interventions are not made.  Therefore, both the species should be prioritized as important “Forest Genetic Resources” and get the required attention for in-situ and ex-situ conservation. Artificial regeneration of these species has also to be taken up so as to augment the declining population in the natural forests.


As a word, ‘minimalism’ originates from ‘minimal, that transcribes as ‘minimum’ in French. Lexically, the word, ‘minimum’ is defined as ‘the least or smallest amount or quantity possible, attainable or required.’ The same word transcribes as ‘the lowest digit to which a variable quantity may get reduced’ in mathematics. (Turkish Linguistic Society).
In architecture and other disciplines of design, the minimalist movement has grown relatively different than the branches of art. Unlike art, architecture offers no absolute rights. When it comes to design, the functional meaning ascribed to the object is immense. Independent from semantic and functional yields of minimalism in quite a number of fields, function has always been compelling around the minimalist movement for designers.
Minimalist movement differs from other architectural movements in that it manifests itself from time to time at different periods and within other movements before it has grown into a movement and even after it. For this reason, as far as minimalist movement is concerned, it would be apt to look at the period before and after minimalist movement emerged as a branch of modernism. In this paper, postmodern minimalism will have been scrutinized as a movement.